Private individuals who wish to purchase Pepperball Systems may do so from the following sources.
Retailers and Area Servicing Agents on this web site.
No matter from where you make the purchase you will need to take the system to an Area Servicing Agent to have the high pressure air cylinder filled. The Agent will do this for you and provide you with a free familiarisation training course covering subjects listed in the user manual.
Security Agencies and companies are encouraged to have at least one staff member trained as a Pepperball Systems instructor and armourer. Please contact email@example.com to find out when and where the next instructors course will be held.
Non-Lethal Defence Sytems
Congratulations on your purchase of a Non-Lethal Solutions (PepperBall) product. The purpose of this booklet is to familiarize you with the system and its applications
WARNING. For general public users the system should be viewed as a self / home defense system and not as a tool that empowers the user to attempt seemingly simple arrest procedures.
Arrest procedures can lead to an escalation in the risk of violent confrontation and should therefore ideally be left to trained personnel such as the SAPS or Armed Response officers.
How PepperBall Systems Work
PepperBall Systems are powered by high-pressure air to launch a frangible ball, which breaks upon impact and releases an extremely effective super irritant called PAVA pepper (Capsaicin II). These systems are contact safe, target accurate within 60 feet, and provide area saturation with PAVA within a 200-foot range.
PepperBall systems are not limited to classic standoff situations, and allows users to apply as many rounds as required to bring individual suspects, multiple suspects, or crowds into compliance. Users can also employ the system to deny access or bring suspects out of hiding, or can quickly load various specialized projectiles to break glass and disperse barricades, mark suspects for later round ups, or apply impact only as required. In this way PepperBall system provide versatility and effectiveness without serious injury to the subjects, while helping to keep users a safe distance from physical confrontation.
Why PepperBall Systems Work
PepperBall systems use Chemnetics technology to deliver a three-pronged, less-lethal response. Specifically, the following affects are combined to effectively achieve suspect compliance.
Operation of the System
- Psychological shock:
the surprise from the being "shot"
- Kinetic impact:
PepperBall systems hit with 8-12 foot-pounds of force to stop subjects without causing permanent damage or serious injury.
- Chemical super irritant:
PAVA (capsaicin II) pepper powder causes coughing and burning sensations in the eyes, nose, throat and skin.
There is more than one model of Pepperball launcher available. It is the users responsibility to familiarize him/ herself with whatever model he has purchased
Generally the arming process involves making sure that the:
- air/ gas cylinder is fully charged
- on / off switch on the air cylinder is in the on position.
- cocking lever has been racked to cock the launcher.
- safety is in the on or off position as required.
- Pepperballs are in the hopper and have unobstructed access
into the breech.
Pepperball launcher valves have been modified to deliver higher velocities and must therefore not be used as Paintball markers in the sport of Paintball.
Use of paintballs in a Pepperball launcher can lead to paintball breakages in the launcher (due to increased operating pressures), which increases the potential of the system malfunctioning (old paint and pieces of paintballs gumming up the Launchers working parts). Use of paintballs in a Pepperball launcher will invalidate its warranty.
Tactical applications and limitations.
There are a number of factors a user will need to consider before using a Pepperball system or for that matter any form of defense in response to a potential threat to oneself, property or third party.
For purposes of deciding the intensity / level of your response the suspects body is zoned according to where the least (orange zones) to the most (red zones) possible injury can occur.
Red Zones = Head, eyes, groin, neck or spine
Orange Zones = body trunk, limbs, extremities,
Do not shoot directly for red zones unless the threat to you or a third party is extreme.
Remember that in cold and or raining weather conditions the suspect may be wearing bulky clothing that can lessen the Pepperballs impact and possibly even prevent the Pepperball from breaking open. Be prepared to withdraw or escalate your response if compliance is not immediately apparent.
It is possible to incapacitate a suspect by saturation shooting the area into which he is moving. i.e. he is running towards a door therefore shoot a number of Pepperballs against the wall around the door thereby creating a pepper cloud into which he will run. There will be no direct impact on the suspect. NOTE: be sure to avoid the saturated area yourself.
When a user becomes aware of a trespasser it is better to immediately access the Pepperball Launcher, arm it, stay within your house and phone for help.
It is not wise to leave the safety of your house. There may be more than one suspect, the whereabouts of whom you have no idea and they may be armed.
Switch off interior lights. You know your way around the house. The suspect does not and it will make it more difficult for him to track your movements. The suspect will be silhouetted against any exterior lighting.
If an intruder attempts forceful entry to the house itself and you decide to engage him be sure your response is commiserate with the extent of the threat. See SA Law and private defense.
The Capsaicin ll pepper powder contained in the Pepperball will contaminate the area where the Pepperball impacts. Using the (purple) practice rounds you should familiarize yourself with the extent of the contamination one can expect under different conditions. To avoid self-contamination always be aware of the suspect's position relative to your position and the direction of the prevailing wind.
Read the (PAVA Pepperball) packaging label carefully so that you are aware of what procedures to follow when contamination occurs.
Do Not move into areas that have been recently impacted by Pepperballs.
Pepperballs should be stored securely (locked cupboard or safe) to prevent children having access to them.
South African Law w.r.t Pepperball Systems
In terms of the New Firearms Control Act 60 of 2000, which recently came into full effect on the 1st of July 2004, a paintball marker on which Pepperball systems are based, is not a firearm and thus does not require a license. (Chapter 3 Section 5 (1h)
The Pepperball itself is a frangible plastic ball containing Capsaicin ll pepper powder similar to that used in Aerosol Pepper Sprays one can purchase over the counter. No license is presently required for this product.
South African Law (Private Defense)
The law requires certain conditions to be met before one wishes to plead Private Defense, which includes both self-defense and the defense of a third party.
REQUIREMENTS OF THE HARM THREATENED
REQUIREMENTS OF YOUR RESPONSE
- The harm must be unlawful
- The harm must infringe a legal interest
- The harm must be reasonably imminent or actually occurring.
USE OF FORCE IN AFFECTING A CITIZENS ARREST
In terms of Section 42 of the Criminal Procedure Act of 1977 a South African Citizen has the right to arrest the following persons:-
- Your response must be directed at the attacker or his agent.
(I.e. his dog)
- Your response must be necessary
- Your response must be related to the severity of the attack.
- Your intention must have been to act in accordance with the requirements of the law of private defense.
REQUIREMENTS REGARDING THE USE OF FORCE DURING ARRESTS
- Persons engaged in an affray (Public Fighting)
- Persons who he has a reasonable suspicion have committed a Schedule One Offense.
SOME SCHEDULE ONE OFFENSES
- You have the right to arrest the individual. (Section 42)
- You must have the intention to arrest the suspect (i.e. your intent must be to arrest the suspect so that you can hand him over to the law enforcement agencies.)
- You must have a reasonable belief or have actual knowledge of a schedule one offence having been committed by the suspect.
- The suspect must have resisted or fled in the knowledge of your intention to arrest them. (Inform them of same asap)
- Your use of force was necessary to secure compliance from the suspect and there was no other reasonable alternative.
- House breaking
- Malicious injury to property
- Robbery (Hijacking, mugging)
- Assault with intent to do grievous bodily harm (GBH)
- Indecent Assault
- Any attempt at one of the above